和弦记号

8个月前更新
此译文内容陈旧,请参考英语版本: Chord symbols

    和弦记号 are an abbreviated way of representing musical chords (see Chord names and symbols (Wikipedia) for further details). For example:

    和弦记号

    :To fill measures with slashes, see Fill with slashes or Toggle rhythmic slash notation.

    As well as conventional chord symbol notation, MuseScore as of version 3.3 also supports the Nashville Number System (NNS), and Roman Numeral Analysis (RNA).

    输入和弦记号

    1. 选择起始的音符或斜杠;
    2. 按下Ctrl+K(Mac:Cmd+K);
    3. The cursor is now positioned above the staff ready for input. Enter the chord symbol just like normal text, as follows:
      • 根音符:A、B、C、D、E、F、G。
      • 升号#(井号,在英式键盘上是Alt+3)。
      • 降号b(小写字母“b”)。
      • 重升号x(小写字母“x”)或## (两个井号)。
      • 重降号bb(两个小写字母“b”)。
      • 还原号natural. Note: There should be no space before the word "natural", but any chord text following it should be separated by a space—the latter inserted using the command Ctrl+Space. Thus, to write B♮m: enter "Bnatural", then pressCtrl+Space, then type "m". You can also use Ctrl+Shift+H. Note that neither of these transpose or play back (other than the root note), or export to MusicXML properly.
      • For other symbols, see Chord symbol syntax (below).
    4. Move the cursor forward or backwards to continue entering or editing chord symbols (see Keyboard commands below);
      5.按下Esc退出和弦符号模式。

    When you exit a chord symbol, the characters entered will automatically assume the correct format: by default a root note typed in lower case will turn into upper case (for alternative options, see Automatic Capitalization); a "#", "b" or "natural" will turn into a proper sharp (♯), flat (♭) or natural (♮) and so on. Do not try to use actual flat, sharp and natural signs, as MuseScore will not understand those properly.

    Keyboard commands

    The following commands are available during chord symbol entry:

    • Space move Cursor to next note, rest, or beat
    • Shift+Space move cursor to previous note, rest, or beat
    • Ctrl+Space (Mac: Alt+Space) add a space to the chord name
    • ; move cursor to next beat
    • : move cursor to previous beat
    • Tab move cursor to next measure
    • Shift+Tab move cursor to previous measure
    • Ctrl (Mac: Cmd) plus number (1 - 9) move Cursor by duration corresponding to number (e.g.; half note for 6)
    • Esc退出。

    和弦记号语法

    MuseScore understands most of the abbreviations used in chord symbols:

    • 大调:M、Ma、Maj、ma、maj、Δ(键入tˆ以打出三角形)。
    • 小调:m、mi、min、-
    • 减和弦:dim、°(以小写字母输入o,若使用[爵士风格] (#appearance),则显示为°,其他情况时显示为o)
    • Half-diminished:ø (键入数字0)。或者,您也可以选择mi7b5等缩写。
    • 增和弦:aug、+
    • The following abbreviations are also valid: extensions and alterations like b9 or #5, sus, alt, and no3; inversions and slash chords, such as C7/E; commas; parentheses, which can enclose part, or even all, of a chord symbol.

    Edit a chord symbol

    An existing chord symbol can be edited in a similar way to ordinary text: See Text editing.

    Transpose chord symbols

    如果您将菜单移调命令应用于包含的小节,则默认情况下和弦符号会自动移调。若不需要,您可以取消选中同一对话框中的“移调和弦符号”选项。

    Chord symbol text

    To adjust the appearance of all chord symbol text, use any of the following options:

    • From the main menu, choose FormatStyleText StylesChord Symbol. Then edit the text properties as required.
    • Select a chord symbol and make changes in the Inspector, pressing the "Set as style" buttons as you go.

    Chord symbol style

    To access formatting options for chord symbols:

    • From the menu, select FormatStyle…Chord Symbols. Adjustable properties are listed under the following headings:

    Appearance

    Three options are possible: Standard and Jazz and Custom. You can select between these using the radio buttons.

    • In the Standard style, chords are rendered simply, with the font determined by your chord symbol text style.

      Standard chord symbols

    • In the Jazz style, the MuseJazz font is used for a handwritten look, with distinctive superscript and other formatting characteristics. The Jazz style is selected by default if you use any of the Jazz templates.

      Jazz chord symbols

    • The Custom style option allows you to customize the look of chord symbols (and also ensures compatibility with older scores). Select a customized Chord symbols style file in the field below: this can be created by copying and modifying one of the pre-existing files in the "styles" folder. Documentation can be found in the same folder. Note, however, that this is for advanced users only, and there is no guarantee these files will be supported in the future.

    等音替换

    By default, MuseScore uses letter names for chord symbols. For users in regions where other note naming schemes are used, MuseScore provides the following controls:

    • 标准:A、B♭、B、C、C♯……
    • 德式:A、B♭、H、C、C♯……
    • Full German:A、B、H、C、Cis……
    • Solfeggio:Do、Do♯、Re♭、Re……
    • 法式:Do、Do♯、Ré♭、Ré……
    Automatic Capitalization

    By default, MuseScore automatically capitalizes all note names on exit, regardless of whether you entered them in upper or lower case. However, you can also choose other automatic capitalization options:

    • Lower case minor chords:c, cm, cm7,...
    • Lower case bass notes:C/e,...
    • 全大写音名:DO, RE, MI,...

    You can also turn off the automatic capitalization completely, in which case note names are simply rendered the way you type them.

    Positioning

    • Distance to fretboard diagram: If a fretboard diagram is present, this value is the height at which the chord symbol is applied above the diagram (negative values can be used).
    • Minimum chord spacing: The space to leave between chord symbols.
    • Maximum barline distance: Changes the size of the gap between the last chord symbol in the measure and the following barline. You only need to adjust this value if there is a continuous problem in the score with overlap between the last symbol in one measure and the first symbol in the next.

    Note: In addition to the settings described here, the default position of applied chord symbols is also determined by settings in the Text Styles dialog. The effect is cumulative.

    Capo

    Enter the number of the capo position at which you want to display substitute chords, in brackets, after all chord symbols in the score.

    Nashville Number System

    The Nashville Number System (NNS), available in MuseScore since version 3.3, is a shorthand way of representing chords based on scale degrees rather than chord letters. This allows an accompaniment to be played in any key from the same chord chart.

    To start entering Nashville notation:

    1. Select a start note;
    2. From the menu, select AddTextNashville Number.

    Just as with standard chord symbols, you can type Nashville notation normally and MuseScore will do its best to recognize and format the symbols appropriately. The same shortcuts used for navigation when entering standard chord symbols (e.g. Space, see above) are available for Nashville notation as well.

    纳什维尔数字示例

    罗马数字分析

    As of MuseScore 3.3, the Roman Numeral Analysis system is supported—a type of musical analysis where chords are represented by upper and lower case Roman numerals (I, ii, III, iv etc.), superscripts, subscripts and other modifying symbols. It is used to notate and analyze the harmony of a composition independent of its key (see External links for further details).

    Note: Unlike standard chord symbols and Nashville notation, which MuseScore formats using its own algorithms, RNA uses the free and open source Campania font to format the symbols. This allows MuseScore to format the symbols as you type, rather than applying the formatting only when you are done. Also, if you install the Campania font on your system normally, you can use it in other programs as well and benefit from the same formatting.

    输入RNA

    1. Select a start note;
    2. From the menu, select AddTextRoman Numeral Analysis. Alternatively, set up a keyboard shortcut to do the same thing in Preferences;
    3. Input the RNA symbols for the chord just like normal text, as follows;
      • Major chord: Upper case roman numerals
      • Minor chord: Lower case roman numerals
      • Diminished chord: o (lower case)
      • Half-diminished chord: 0 (zero)
      • Augmented chord: +
      • Chord inversions: Enter up to 3 single-digit numbers, top note first
      • Accidentals: # (sharp), b (flat)
      • For other symbols, see the images below, "Examples of RNA".
    4. Move the cursor forward or backwards to continue entering or editing symbols for other chords;
    5. When RNA is completed, exit by pressing Esc, or by clicking on a blank section of the score.

    Just as with standard chord symbols, you can type Roman numeral analysis normally and MuseScore will do its best to recognize and format the symbols appropriately. The same shortcuts used for navigation when entering standard chord symbols are available for Roman numeral analysis as well (see Keyboard commands (above)).

    Examples of RNA

    Type this:

    RNA Example, type this

    To get this:

    RNA Example, get this

    Playback (as of version 3.5)

    请参阅播放:和弦符号/纳什维尔数字.

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