文件格式

3个月前更新
此译文内容陈旧,请参考英语版本: File formats

    MuseScore可以导入和导出各种文件格式,允许您以最符合您需求的格式共享和发布乐谱。

    MuseScore原生格式

    MuseScore采用以下原生格式保存文件:

    • *.mscz:默认的MuseScore文件格式。压缩后,它占用的磁盘空间相对较小。
    • *.mscx:未压缩的MuseScore文件格式,主要用于调试或存储在版本系统中。
    • .*.mscz, / .*.mscx,:这些是备份文件。注意文件名之前添加的句点,以及添加到文件扩展名的逗号。

    A note about fonts: MuseScore does not embed text fonts in saved or exported native format files. If you want your MuseScore file to be viewed by other MuseScore users, make sure you are using the built-in FreeSerif or FreeSans font families for your text, or a font that the other parties have installed too. If a system does not have the fonts specified in your original file, MuseScore will use a fallback option, which may cause your score to appear differently.

    MuseScore格式 (*.mscz)

    MSCZ是标准的MuseScore文件格式,推荐用于大多数用途。以这种格式保存的分数占用的磁盘空间很小,但保留了所有必要的信息。该格式是“.mscx”文件的ZIP压缩版本,包括乐谱可能包含的任何图像和缩略图。

    未压缩的MuseScore格式 (*.mscx)

    MSCX是MuseScore文件格式的未压缩版本。以这种格式保存的乐谱将保留除图像以外的所有信息。它可以通过文本编辑器打开,允许用户访问文件的源代码。

    MuseScore备份文件 (.*.mscz,) or (.*.mscx,)

    备份文件会自动创建,并保存在与普通MuseScore文件相同的文件夹中。备份副本包含之前保存的MuseScore文件版本,若您的正常副本损坏或查看旧版本的乐谱,则可能很重要。

    The backup file adds a period to the beginning of the file name (.) and a comma (,) to the end (e.g. if your normal file is called "untitled.mscz", the backup copy will be ".untitled.mscz,"), and the period and comma need to be removed from the name in order to open the backup file in MuseScore. As it is stored in the same folder as your normal MuseScore file, you may also need to give it a unique name (e.g. changing ".untitled.mscz," to "untitled-backup1.mscz").

    Note: In order to see the MuseScore backup files, you may need to change your system settings to "Show hidden files". See also How to recover a backup copy of a score.

    Graphic files (export only)

    MuseScore can export a score as a graphic file in either PDF, PNG or SVG format.

    PDF (*.pdf)

    PDF(便携式文档格式)文件非常适合与无需编辑内容的他人共享您的乐谱。这是一种非常广泛使用的格式,大多数用户的计算机上都会有某种类型的PDF查看器。

    要设置导出的PDF的分辨率:

    1. 从菜单栏中,选择编辑偏好设置...(Mac: MuseScore偏好设置...),并选择“导出”选项卡;
      2.在“PDF”栏中设置分辨率。

    PNG (*.png)

    PNG (Portable Network Graphics) files are based on a bitmap image format, widely supported by software on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux, and very popular on the web. MuseScore creates PNG images as they would appear if printed, one image per page.

    To set the resolution of exported PNG images:

    1. From the menu bar, choose EditPreferences... (Mac: MuseScorePreferences...), and select the "Export" tab;
    2. Set the resolution and transparency in the PNG/SVG section.

    Note: If you want to create images that show only parts of the score (with or without screen-only items such as frame boxes, invisible notes, and out-of-range note colors), use Image capture instead.

    SVG (*.svg)

    SVG(可扩展矢量图形)文件可以由大多数网页浏览器(版本9之前的Internet Explorer除外)和大多数矢量图形软件打开。然而,大多数SVG软件不支持嵌入式字体,因此必须安装适当的MuseScore字体才能正确查看这些文件。SVG是当前所有存储在MuseScore.com上乐谱格式。

    要设置导出的SVG文件的分辨率和透明度,请参阅PNG(上评论)的说明。请注意,MuseScore尚未支持导出时的渐变(虽然它在分数中可用于图像)。

    音频文件(仅限导出)

    MuseScore可以以以下任何格式创建乐谱的标准化、立体声音频:WAVMP3OGG VORBISFLAC。要导出音频文件:

    1. 从菜单中,选择文件导出...
    2. 从下拉菜单中选择所需的格式,然后按Save

    您可以按如下方式调整所有音频格式的采样率

    1. 从菜单栏中,选择编辑偏好设置...(Mac:MuseScore偏好设置...),并单击导出选项卡;
    2. 在“音频”栏中设置“采样率”。

    WAV音频 (*.wav)

    WAV(波形音频格式)是一个未压缩的音频格式。这是由微软和IBM开发的,并受到Windows、OS X和Linux软件的广泛支持。这是创建CD时使用的理想格式,因为保持了完整的音质。要通过电子邮件或互联网共享,请使用压缩替代方案,如MP3.

    MP3 (*.mp3)

    MP3是一种非常广泛使用的压缩音频格式。MP3文件因其体积相对较小,非常适合通过互联网共享和下载。

    设置MP3比特率

    1. 从菜单栏中,选择编辑偏好设置...(Mac:MuseScore偏好设置...),并选择“导出”选项卡;
    2. 在“音频”栏中设置MP3比特率。

    FLAC音频 (*.flac)

    Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is compressed audio format. FLAC files are approximately half the size of uncompressed audio and just as good quality. Windows and OS X do not have built-in support for FLAC, but software such as the free and open source VLC media player can play FLAC files on any operating system.

    Ogg Vorbis (*.ogg)

    Ogg Vorbis is intended as a patent-free replacement for the popular MP3 audio format (which MuseScore also supports—see above). Like MP3, Ogg Vorbis files are relatively small (often a tenth of uncompressed audio), but some sound quality is lost. Windows and OS X do not have built-in support for Ogg Vorbis. However, software such as VLC media player and Firefox can play Ogg files on any operating system.

    Share with other music software

    MuseScore can import and export MusicXML and MIDI files; it is also able to import a variety of native format files from other music notation programs.

    MusicXML (*.xml, *.musicxml)

    MusicXML is the universal standard for sheet music. It is the recommended format for sharing sheet music between different scorewriters, including MuseScore, Sibelius, Finale, and more than 100 others. MuseScore imports *.xml and *.musicxml, but exports only *.musicxml. If you need *.xml (because the program you want to import it needs that), you need to rename it yourself after the export.

    Compressed MusicXML (*.mxl)

    Compressed MusicXML creates smaller files than regular MusicXML. This is a newer standard and isn't as widely supported by older scorewriters, but MuseScore has full import and export support.

    MIDI (*.mid, *.midi, *.kar)

    MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a format widely supported by sequencers and music notation software. For details of the protocol see the MIDI Association website.

    MIDI files are very useful for playback purposes but contain little in the way of score layout information (formatting, pitch spelling, voicing, ornaments, articulations, repeats, key signatures etc.). To share files between different music notation software, MusicXML is recommended instead.

    For details about how to import MIDI files see MIDI import.

    MuseData (*.md)(仅导入)

    MuseData是Walter B. Hewlett开发的一种格式,始于1983年,是软件之间共享音乐符号的早期手段。自那以后,它被MusicXML的光芒盖过,但这种格式的数千份乐谱仍然可以在线获得。

    Capella (*.cap, *.capx)(仅导入)

    CAP and CAPX files are created by the score writer, Capella. MuseScore imports version 2000 (3.0) or later fairly accurately.

    Bagpipe Music Writer (*.bww) (import only)

    BWW files are created by the niche score writer, Bagpipe Music Writer.

    BB (*.mgu, *.sgu) (import only)

    BB files are created by the music arranging software, Band-in-a-Box. MuseScore's support is currently experimental.

    Overture (*.ove)(仅导入)

    OVE文件由乐谱制作器Overture创建。该格式主要在中国大陆、香港和台湾等中文环境中流行。MuseScore的支持目前是实验性的。

    Guitar Pro(各种——仅限导入)

    MuseScore can open Guitar Pro files with the following extensions: *.gtp, *.gp3, *.gp4, *.gp5, *.gpx, and, as of version 3.5, *.gp.

    Power Tab Editor (*.ptb) (import only)

    PTB files are created by Power Tab Editor. MuseScore's support is currently experimental.

    另请参阅

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